This volume contains the stenographic
records of lectures Rudolf Steiner gave to members of the
Anthroposophical Society in Stuttgart during a number of
visits to that city in 1920.
title of the book was not given by Rudolf Steiner but by
by Rudolf Steiner that are part of the German Collected
Works (Gesamtausgabe GA) are referred to by their GA
numbers in these notes.
Most of the
notes are translations of the notes in the German
edition. A few have been added by the translator. These
are identifiable from the letters TN at the beginning.
Published German and English titles are shown in italics.
Translations of German titles have been given initial
capitals as appropriate if published in English; initial
capitals have not been used where titles have merely been
translated to inform English-speaking readers as to their
Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach, German philosopher. Referring
to Feuerbach's anthropomorphism, Rudolf Steiner
repeatedly quoted from his book Das Wesen des
Christentums (1841), e.g. in a lecture given in
Dornach on 15 October 1921 (Anthroposophie als
Kosmosophie, GA 207, English title
Ludwig Buechner, German physician
and materialist philosopher.
‘Die Weisheitslehren des Christentums in Lichte
der Theosophie’ (The wisdom taught in the
Christian faith in the light of Theosophy),Colmar, 21
November 1905 (no written record in existence).
Details not known.
Paul Deussen, philosopher and Sanscrit scholar.
Richard von Garbe, Sancrit scholar.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte, German philosopher. Die
Bestimtnung des Menschen 1800.
Friedrich Wilhem Joseph von
Schelling German philosopher. Bruno, oder über
das göttliche and natürliche Prinzip der
Dinge. Ein Gespräch (Bruno, or concerning the
divine and natural principle of things. A
Johann Christoph Friedrich von
Schiller, German dramatist, poet and historian.
Briefe über die ästhetische Erziehung des
Menschen (letters on aesthetic education)
Ralph Waldo Trine, American writer.
Stuttgart, 21 December 1919. In Weltsilvester and
Neujahrsgedanken GA 195. English in The Cosmic
New Year. London: Rudolf Steiner Publishing Co.
A. Ferrière. La loi du progres economique et la
justice sociale. Suisse-Belgique Outremer
juillet-aout 1919; 1:no.3-4
Grigoriy Efimovich Rasputin, reputed ‘holy
man’ who influenced the Tsarina and Tsar Nicholas
II of Russia.
TN. William II (1859–1941),
third German emperor and ninth king of Prussia.
Dr Roman Boos. anthroposophical lecturer, writer in the
field of social sciences. Pioneer of the Threefold
TN. plaisamerie — joke;
méchanceté — spitefulness,
Prince-Archbishop Johann Baptist Katschthaler,
Salzburg, Austria. Pastoral of 2 February 1905 entitled
'Die dem katholischen Priester gebiihrende Ehre' (The
honour due to Catholic priests), reprinted in Carl
Mirbt Quellen zur Geschichte des Pabst-rums and des
rdmischen Katholizismus (Sources relating to the
history of the papacy and of Roman Catholicism) 5.
Aufl. Tubingen 1934, S. 497 ff. The passage relating to
the powers of consecration is given below.
‘Honour your priests, for they
have the power of consecration. Catholic priests have
this wonderful power of consecration, Protestant
pastors do not. This power of consecration, to make the
Body of the Lord be present, with the precious Blood,
with the whole of His sacred humanity and His divine
nature in the Bread and the Wine — that is a
great and sublime power, a truly extraordinary power!
Where in heaven is a power like that of the Catholic
priest to be found? Among the angels? Or does the
Mother of God have it? Mary conceived Christ, the Son
of God, in her womb and gave birth to Him in the stable
in Bethlehem. Yes. But consider what happens during
Holy Mass! Does not the same thing happen, as it were,
when the priest raises his hands in blessing during the
consecration? Christ is really and truly made to be
present, to be reborn, as it were, in the Bread and the
Wine. Mary bore her child in Bethlehem, wrapping it in
swaddling clothes; a priest does the same, as it were,
placing the wafer on the corporal cloth. Mary
brought her child into the world just once. But
see, a priest does this not once, but rnany
hundreds and thousands of times, each time he
celebrates the Mass. There, in the stable, the child
which Mary gave to the world was small, capable of
suffering and mortal. Here, on the altar, in the hands
of the priest, we have Christ in His glory, not capable
of suffering and also immortal, sitting in heaven
to the right of the Father, glorious and triumphant,
perfect in every regard. Do priests merely make the
Body and Blood be present? No. They sacrifice,
offering sacrifice to the Heavenly Father. This is the
same sacrifice that Christ brought by shedding His
blood on Calvary and bloodlessly at the Last Supper.
There the eternal High Priest Jesus Christ sacrificed
His Flesh, His Blood and His very Life to the Heavenly
Father; here, at the Mass, He does the same through his
representative, the Catholic priest. He ordained
priests to take His place so that they might continue
the same sacrifice that He had brought. He has
transferred to them the authority over His sacred
humanity, giving them power over His body, as it were.
A Catholic priest is able not only to make Him be
present on the altar, lock Him up in the tabernacle,
take Him out again and give Him to the faithful to eat,
he is actually able to offer Him, the Son of God become
Man, as a bloodless sacrifice for the living and the
dead. Christ, the only begotten Son of the Father by
whom heaven and earth were created and who sustains the
whole world, submits to the Catholic priests in this
respect.'=’ (Italics as in the original text
given by Mirbt.)
‘Suprema lex regis voluntas’.
William II (see note 10) wrote this in the Golden Book
of the City of Munich. See also J. von Kiirenberg
War alles falsch? Das Leben Kaiser Wi/helms
II. (Was it all wrong? A life of the emperor William
II. Translated into English and published in 1954, but
exact English title not known), Basle-Olten 1940;
German edition S. 190.
Dionysius the Areopagite (an Athenian converted by St
Paul): ‘ the Heavenly and Ecclesiastical
Hierarchies' and The hierarchy of the church,’ in
Die angeblichen Schriften des Areopagiten
Dionysius, übersetzt and mit Abhandlungen
begleitet von J.G. V. Engelhardt (Writings
ascribed to Dionyius the Areopagite, translated and
provided with commentaries by J.G.V. Engelhardt), part
2, Sulzbach 1823.
Aurelius Augustinus, De Civitate Dei. libri
Dante Alighieri, De
Wycliffe, John, English reformer.
Hus, or Huss, John, Bohemian
reformer, burned when the Council of Constance
condemned his and Wycliffe's writings.
TN. Luke 17:20-21. Rudolf Steiner was quoting from the
Luther Bible, but saying 'gods' instead of 'God'.
Grim, Herman, Fragtmente (vol. 1), Berlin
& Stuttgart, S. 212: ‘For the people of today
, it is no longer the Wars of Liberation fought
against Napoleon I that are the last important
historical event in their lifetime, but the Wars of
Liberation fought against Austria and France in the
1860s and 1870s. We have been a nation where children
had to be taught that they would never be permitted to
act freely in influencing the destinies of their
country. Today, however, Germans are compelled to act
in this way. Fifty years ago it would have been
unthinkable to make it part of education to tell
children that they would one day be citizens of a great
united German Empire and that their duties towards God,
the Emperor and their country would one day also
consist in having to elect someone to represent them in
a German Parliament, basing their choice on their
personal judgement of the country's needs. Just to
utter such things would have sounded like high treason
and might have ruined the life of the person who
‘Der Weg zum gesunden Denken und die Lebenslage
des Gegenwartsmenschen’ (A way to develop sound
thinking and people's life situation in the present
day), Stuttgart 8 June 1920. Published in
Geisteswissenschaft und die Lebensfordeningen der
Gegenwart No. 6, Dornach 1950. To be published in
Germany in GA 355. No record of translation into
Lenin (formerly Ulyanov), Vladimir Ilyich, Russian
Trotsky. Leon (Lev Davidovich
Bronstein), Russian revolutionary leader in 1917.
Basler Vonvärts of 2 June 1920. X.N. ,
‘Die Politik der Sowjetregierung auf dem Gebiete
der Religion’ (Soviet government policies
See Franz Brentano. Die Psychology des Aristoteles (The
psychology of Aristotle), Mainz 1867. S. 199 ff.
Traub, Friedrich, professor at Tuebingen University,
author of Rudolf Steiner als Philosoph und
Theosoph (Rudolf Steiner as a philosopher and
theosophist), Tuebingen 1919.
For details relating to this see Boos, Roman,
‘Aktenmäßige Darstellung der Hetze
gegen das Goetheanum’ (The virulent campaign
againt the Goetheanum presented in documents), in
Rudolf Steiner/Roman Boos: Die Hetze gegen das
Goetheanum (The virulent campaign against the
Goetheanum), Arlesheim 1920.
Refers to the Council's rejection of
‘trichotomy’. Rudolf Steiner referred to
this on a number of occasions, e.g. in Bausteine zu
einer Erkenntnis des Mysteriums von Golgatha GA
175, 1st and 2nd lectures. English translation in
Cosmic and Human Metamporphoses. H. Collison
ed. London: Anthroposophical Publishing Co. 1926.
Mathilde Reichardt, a lady who published a book on
science and moral philosophy in the form of letters to
Moleschott in 1856, is able to lay undoubted and
unenviable claim to rank first among those who turn
moral concepts upside down. It is the opinion of this
lady that moral philosophy merely has to ask whether a
human individual develops his or her inherent traits in
a balanced way. Yet nature — so she says —
expresses a different intent in every human individual.
She therefore does not hesitate to state ‘that
when someone has an inherent tendency to cheat and to
steal, such a person can only be an entirely moral
person if he or she is a cheat or a thief.’
‘Someone born to be a thief has also been born
with the right to live out those inherent tendencies,
developing them to the full, for that is the only way
in which he or she can be a strong and moral
individual. And what applies to thieves also applies to
all other vices, including those born to be
(Quoted from Jurgen Bona Meyer, Philosophische
Zei&agen, Bonn 1874, S. 323 f.)
Vogt, Carl, champion of Darwinism.
Moleschott, Jakob, physiologist.
Buechner, Ludwig, German physician
and materialist philosopher.
Die Philosophie der Freiheit (1894), GA. 4.
English: The Philosophy of Freedom. M. Wilson
tr. London: Rudolf Steiner Press 1970.
‘Die Erziehung und der Unterricht gegenüber
der Weltlage der Gegenwart’ (Education and
teaching in the light of the present world situation),
Stuttgart 10 June 1920. Published in
Geisteswissenschaft und die Lebensforderungen der
Gegenwart 6, Dornach 1950. To be published in GA
335. No record of translation into English.
Die Kernpunkte der Sozialen Frage in den
Lebensnotwendigkeiten der Gegenwart und Zukunft
(1919) GA 23. English translation: Towards Social
Renewal. F.T. Smith tr. London: Rudolf Steiner
See Rudolf Steiner's Mein Lebensgang
(1923–25) GA. 28. English translation: Rudolf
Steiner: An Autobiography. R. Stebbing tr. New
York: Rudolf Steiner Publications 1977.
Von Seelenrätseln (Riddles of the soul)
(1917) GA. 21. Parts translated into English in The
Case for Anthroposophy. Owen Barfield tr. London:
Rudolf Steiner Press 1970.
Molt, Emil, see ref. 37.
Kühn, Hans, writer and
Unger, Carl, grad. engineer, owner
of machine tool works, member of Council of the German
Anthroposophical Society from 1905, lecturer and
writer. Shot by a mentally sick individual in Nuremberg
Leinhas, Emil, businessman, managing
director of Der Kommende Tag AG (see ref. 39),
Seiling, Max, first a follower then an opponent of
Rudolf Steiner. Bore the title Privy Councillor.
TN. Rudolf Steiner used word-play
here, calling Hofrat (Privy Councillor)
Seiling an Un-Rat. The word Unrat
means garbage, refuse, ordure.
An das deutsche Volk und an die Kultunvelt!
(Appeal to the German nation and the civilized world),
pamphlet, 1919, reprinted a.o. in Towards Social
Renewal (ref. 31).
Appeal to establish a Council for Culture. Whitsun
1919, signed by many well-known figures in cultural
Waldorf School: intergrated primary and secondary
school established by Emil Molt in 1919 for the
children of workers in the Waldorf Astoria Cigarette
Factory and the general public. This was done under the
guidance of Rudolf Steiner who also appointed the
teachers and himself gave the preparatory teachers'
Der Konunende Tag, Aktiengesellschaft zur
F6rderung wirtschaftlicher and geistiger Werte
(join-stock company for the promotion of economic and
cultural values), established in Stuttgart in March
1920. Rudolf Steiner was Chairman of the Board until
1923. The company became a victim of post-war inflation
in Germany and had to be dissolved in 1925.
Stuttgart 16 June 1920; published in Landwirtschafi
und Industrie/Neuordnung des Bodenrechtes als soziale
Forderung der Gegenwart (Agriculture and
industry/New proposals for land ownership as a social
requirement for the present age); quoted from the
writings and lectures of Rudolf Steiner, Roman Boos
ed., Stuttgart 1957, S. 84 ff. (to be published in GA
335). No record of translation into English.
Spengler, Oswald, German historic writer. Der
Untergang des Abendlandes (Decline of the
West, C.F. Atkinson tr.) Munich, vol. 1, 1918,
vol. 2, 1922.
Die Philosophie des Thomas von Aquino. 3
lectures given in Dornach on 22-24 May 1920. GA 74.
English translation: The Redemption of
Thinking. A.P. Shepherd, M.R. Nicoll tr. London:
Hodder & Stoughton 1956.
Durch den Geist zur Wirklichkeits-Erkenntnis der
Menschenrätsel: Philosophie und
Anthroposophie. Vier Marchen (aus den Mysteriendramen).
Anthroposophisicher Seelenkalender. Der Seelen
Erwachen, 7. und 8. Bild. [Discovering the reality of
the riddles of human nature through the spirit.
Philosophy and Anthroposophy. Four tales (from the
Mystery Plays). Calendar of the Soul. The Soul's
Awakening, scenes 7 and 8]. Berlin 1918.
TN. Eckhart, Johannes, known as Meister Eckhart, German
Wie erlangt man Erkenntnisse der höheren
Welten? 1904. GA 10. English translation:
Knowledge of the Higher Worlds. G. Metaxa tr.,
D.S. Osmond, C. Davy rev. London: Rudolf Steiner Press
Trinity Group: a sculpture in wood generally referred
to as the Group Sculpture at the Goetheanum in Dornach,
Switzerland. It shows the Representative of Humanity
between Lucifer and Ahriman.
Dessoir, Max. Vom Jenseits der Seele. Die
Geheimwissenschaften in kritischer Betrachtung
(From the beyond of the soul. A critical assessment of
the occult sciences). S. 254 ff. Stuttgart 1917.
Die geistige Fahrung des Menschen und der
Menschheit, 1910. GA 15. English translation:
The Spiritual Guidance of Man and Humanity.
H.B. Monges tr. New York: Anthroposophical Press
Prof. Hugo Fuchs, Goettingen. See also Rudolf Steiner,
‘Ein paar Worte zum Fuchs-Angriff’ (A few
words on the attack made by Fuchs), in
Dreigliederung des sozialen Organismus 2.
Jahrg. Nr. 5 (Aug. 1920); reprinted in
Aufsätze zur Dreigliederung des sozialen
Organismus and zur Zeitlage 1915-1921 GA 24.
Dreigliederung des sozialen Organismus 2.
Jahrg. Nr. 4, Beilage (Juli 1920).
Atwood, George. English mathematician, invented a
machine to illustrate the motion of a body falling
under the action of gravity.
Von Jesus zu Christus GA 131. English
translation: From Jesus to Christ. H. Collison tr., C.
Davy rev. London: Rudolf Steiner Press 1973.
Die Geheimwissenschaft im Umriß 1910. GA
13. English translation: Occult Science. An
Outline. G and M. Adams tr. London Rudolf Steiner
Wasmann, Erich, entomologist. Major researches on ants.
The MS of the lecture is not quite clear at this point,
and the German editors have added the words in [ ].
Literally Goethe said the following:
‘It is said that the truth lies halfway between
two contradictor), opinions. Far from it! The problem
lies in between, it cannot be beheld; life, for ever
active, calmly thought’ Maximen und
The MS of the lecture had been quoted verbatim in the
earlier German edition but has been found to be
incomplete and therefore was revised for the German
edition on which this translation is based.
Christlieb, Max, a friend from Rudolf Steiner's time at
Weimar who had done much to make The Philosophy of
Freedom more widely known when it had just been
published. See also Rudolf Steiner and Christlieb
Ludwig Kleeberg, Wege und Worte, 2. Aufl. 1961 S. 76
ff. This also refers to the Marburg occasion.
‘Die groflen Aufgaben von heute im Geistesleben,
Rechtsleben und Wirtschaftsleben. Eine dritte
Gegenwartsrede.’ (Major presentday tasks in
cultural life, the sphere of rights and in economic
life. A third topical talk.) Publ. in Rudolf Steiner:
Drei Gegenwartsreden (Three topical talks), Heft 8,
Dornach 1952. To be published in GA 335.
See conclusions of lectures given on 11 and 17 January
1920 in Geistige und soziale Wandlungen in
der Menschheitsentwickelung. GA 196, S. 52 &
82 ff. (Cultural and social changes in the evolution of
humanity). No record of translation into English.
Rohm, Karl, editor of the journal Der
Leuchtturm, Lorch (Württemberg).
Further details in E. Uehli, ‘Die gestohlene
Dreigliederung’ in Dreigliederung des
sozialen Organismus 2. Jahrg. Nr. 11 (Sept.
Knapp, Alfred, established 'Internationaler Orden fiir
Ethik und Kultur' (International Order for Ethics and
Tagore, Sir Rabindranath, Nationalism (also translated
James, William, American psychologist and pragmatic
‘Das Märchen von der griinen Schlange und
der Lilie’ (Tale of the green Snake and the Lily)
in Unterhaltungen deutscher Ausgewanderten
1795, Weimarer Ausgabe, 18. Bd., S. 225 ff.
Humboldt, Karl Wilhelm von, Ideen zu einen Versuch,
die Grenzen der Wirksamkeit des Staates zu
bestimmen (Ideas for an attempt to determine the
limits of effectiveness for a political state)
Wilson, Thomas Woodrow, The State. Elements of
Historic and Practical Politics (also translated
Keely, John Worrell. See also lecture given by Rudolf
Steiner in Dornach on 1 Dec. 1918 in Die soziale
Grundforderung unserer Zeit/In gednderter Zeitlage
GA 186 S. 70 ff. English translation in In the
Changed Conditions of the Times. O.D. Wannamaker
tr. New York/London: Anthroposophic Press/Rudolf
Steiner Publishing Co. 1941.
TN. The Franco-Prussian War 1870–71.
TN. Throughout this lecture Rudolf Steiner used an
invented word, Technizismen (technicisms) for
‘products of technology’.
Stuttgart 10 November 1920, ‘Die Geisteskrisis
der Gegenwart und die Krafte zum
Menschheitsforschritt’ (The spiritual and
cultural crisis of the present time and the forces that
mean progress for humanity). To be published in GA
Bayle, Pierre, French philosopher. Statement has not
been traced to date.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, Die Leiden des jungen
Werther (The sorrows of Werther) 1775. Weimarer
Ausgabe, 19. Bd.
Miller, Johann Martin. Siegwart, novel published in
1776 (2 y ears after Werther), very popular
for a time.
Paquet, Alfons, writer. Im korrunzinistischen
Ruffland In communist Russia, appeared in
See also public lecture referred to in note 69.
Clemenceau, Georges. French physician and
Harnack, Adolf von. German theologian.
‘Goethe als Vater einer neuen Aesthetik’
lecture to the Goethe Society in Vienna on 9 November
1888; first published in Vienna in 1889, reprinted in
Methodische Grundlagen der Anthroposophie
1884–1901 GA 30 and Kunst und Kunsterkenntnis GA
271. English translation: Goethe as Founder of a
New Science of Aesthetics. G. Metaxa tr.
Anthroposophical Publishing Co., 1922.
Stuttgart 16 November 1920, ‘Die Wahrheit der
Geisteswissenschaft und die praktischen
Lebensforderungen der Gegenwart’ (The truth of
spiritual science and the practical requirements of
present-day life). To be published in GA 335.
Keyserling, Hermann, Graf. German philosopher.
Keyserling, Hermann, Philosophie als Kunst
(Philosophy as an art), Darmstadt 1920.
Keyserling, Hermann, Das Reisetagebuch eines
Philosophen (Travel Diary of a
Philosopher, 1925), Darmstadt 1919.